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Extra resources for Taste and Smell
Nature 396(6712):683–687. 1038/25360 78. Kuner R, Kohr G, Grunewald S, Eisenhardt G, Bach A, Kornau HC (1999) Role of heteromer formation in GABAB receptor function. Science 283(5398):74–77 Taste Receptor Gene Expression Outside the Gustatory System 29 79. White JH, Wise A, Main MJ, Green A, Fraser NJ, Disney GH, Barnes AA, Emson P, Foord SM, Marshall FH (1998) Heterodimerization is required for the formation of a functional GABA(B) receptor. Nature 396(6712):679–682. 1038/25354 80. Nelson G, Hoon MA, Chandrashekar J, Zhang Y, Ryba NJ, Zuker CS (2001) Mammalian sweet taste receptors.
The rather “benign” phenotypes, observed in the various taste receptor knockout mouse models, suggest that even animals, which have maintained their full taste receptor gene repertoire in the course of evolution, can obviously compensate the acute loss of extraoral taste receptors quite well. Another issue arises from the fact that taste receptors in the oral cavity are rather low-affinity receptors devoted to detect food-derived compounds at high and nutritionally relevant concentrations. For taste receptors, expressed outside the oral cavity, the question arises whether the corresponding stimuli reach concentrations relevant to modulate the receptor’s activities.
Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 109(8):E524–E532. 1115183109 16. Mace OJ, Affleck J, Patel N, Kellett GL (2007) Sweet taste receptors in rat small intestine stimulate glucose absorption through apical GLUT2. J Physiol 582(Pt 1):379–392 17. Margolskee RF, Dyer J, Kokrashvili Z, Salmon KS, Ilegems E, Daly K, Maillet EL, Ninomiya Y, Mosinger B, Shirazi-Beechey SP (2007) T1R3 and gustducin in gut sense sugars to regulate expression of Na+-glucose cotransporter 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 104 (38):15075–15080 18.