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Sedimentary facies within the subsurface tend to be interpreted from a depositional/stratigraphical viewpoint: the depositional layering is usually thought of to stay undisturbed, other than in a couple of settings. yet, there's growing to be facts that subsurface sediment mobilization (SSM) is extra common than formerly inspiration, as new observations come up from the ever-increasing solution of subsurface facts. Many examples are from hydrocarbon provinces yet reports somewhere else, for instance in education for the underground garage of damaging waste, have yielded unforeseen examples. even supposing formerly the various features of SSM, together with tender sediment deformations, sand injections, shale diapirs, dust volcanoes, and so on, were separated, the recent discoveries emphasize their inter-connection, despite scale, intensity, situation, grain dimension or set off mechanism. This quantity integrates the various points of sediment mobilization within the subsurface and their structural effects, permitting a extra normal and a extra coherent view of the topic.

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Subsurface Sediment Mobilization

Sedimentary facies within the subsurface are typically interpreted from a depositional/stratigraphical standpoint: the depositional layering is mostly thought of to stay undisturbed, other than in a couple of settings. yet, there's transforming into proof that subsurface sediment mobilization (SSM) is extra frequent than formerly suggestion, as new observations come up from the ever-increasing answer of subsurface information.

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A. F. 2000. Use of a viscous model of till rheology to describe gravitational loading instabilities in glacial sediments. , HUBBARD, B. & HAMBREY, MJ. (eds) Deformation of Glacial Materials. Geological Society, London, Special Publications, 176,191-201. L. M. 1993. Sand boils without earthquakes. Geology, 21, 873-876. H. 1982. Geometry and origin of large-scale deformation structures in some ancient wind-blown sand deposits. Sedimentology, 29,155-180. ISHIHARA, K. 1993. Liquefaction and flow failure during earthquakes.

LOAD STRUCTURES Driving forces Density loading. The formation of most load structures is related to variations in gravitational potential energy. These variations commonly result from a gravitationally unstable vertical profile of bulk density where denser sediment overlies relatively less dense; such a system is known as a reverse density gradient, or b-a system (Anketell et al 1970). g. organic particles or volcanic ash fragments are less dense than quartz grains) and packing variations. Freshly deposited muds are often more loosely packed than sands and finer sands more loosely packed than coarser sands and gravels, although packing is also influenced by grain shape and depositional process (Allen 1982).

A source layer of similar lithology to the pseudonodules would overlie a pseudonodule horizon formed in this way. Secondly, attached pseudonodules that formed as in Fig. 5a may become covered by sediment extruded from the crests of diapirs and re-distributed at the sediment-water interface, leaving the pseudonodules detached from the top of the bed (Figs. 2i, 6b; see Owen 1996a, fig. 7). In this case there would be no source layer above the pseudonodule horizon and lamination within the sediment overlying the pseudonodules may indicate its extruded origin.

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