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Businesses have also contributed to the supply of international public goods by sponsoring funds and programmes related to public goods or by making decisions and assuming costs. Examples are Astra-Zeneca’s efforts in developing a drug to cure tuberculosis and Novartis’s work developing products against Dengue fever. Shell and British Petroleum have adopted agreements to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. That these actions are motivated by profits or the desire to improve corporate image does not deter from the beneficial results they have for the international community.

The scope given to activity that is part of international cooperation in fields of shared interest is quite wide. Developing country financing. 3 on Sub-Saharan Africa). Public resources are extremely limited in developing countries, and financing for global public goods faces competition from demands for improving national public goods’ provision—security, health, education and infrastructure. India has made progress in the development of a vaccine against hepatitis B, Viet Nam in the vaccine against meningitis B and Brazil and India in the production of generic drugs for AIDS treatment.

By contrast, public goods supply refers to the correction of market failure, seeking to arrive at better efficiency levels by focusing on economic allocation. Aid works mainly through unilateral transfers of resources (from donor to recipient countries). Public goods management appeals to a wider variety of political means (including changes in legal frameworks to promote cooperative action) and is directed mainly at goods rather than countries. And while aid is directed to developing countries, all countries potentially benefit from public goods supply.

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