By Felix P. Kapron (auth.), Chinlon Lin (eds.)
1 Optical Fiber Waveguides.- 1. Transmission homes of Optical Fibers.- 2. size and Characterization of Optical Fibers.- three. complex Single-Mode Fiber Designs for Lightwave structures Applications.- four. Polarization-Maintaining Optical Fibers.- five. Transmission barriers in Fibers because of Nonlinear Optical Effects.- 2 Fiber-Joining know-how and Passive Optical Components.- 6. Optical Fiber Connectors, Splices, and Jointing Technology.- 7. Passive elements for Optical Coupling and WDM Applications.- three Semiconductor Laser assets and Photodetectors.- eight. simple Physics of Semiconductor Lasers.- nine. Fabrication and Characterization of Semiconductor Lasers.- 10. Transverse Mode regulate in Semiconductor Lasers.- eleven. Longitudinal Mode regulate in Laser Diodes.- 12. Modulation homes of Semiconductor Lasers.- thirteen. High-Power Semiconductor Lasers.- 14. Photodetectors for Long-Wavelength Lightwave Systems.- four Optical Transmitters and Receivers.- 15. Semiconductor Laser Transmitters.- sixteen. Optical Receivers.- five purposes of Optoelectronics in Lightwave Systems.- 17. Optical Communications: Single-Mode Optical Fiber Transmission Systems.- 18. Optical Fiber verbal exchange platforms: neighborhood zone Networks.- 19. destiny purposes of Optical Fiber Networks.- 20. Free-Space Optical verbal exchange Systems.- 21. Optical Fiber Sensor Technology.- 22. Optoelectronic details Processing: Laser Bar Code and Laser Printer Systems.- 6 destiny Optoelectronic know-how and Transmission Systems.- 23. Optoelectronic built-in Circuits.- 24. Coherent Optical Fiber conversation Systems—The Promise for the Future.- 7 affects at the info Society.- 25. The influence of Optoelectronics know-how at the info Society.
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Additional info for Optoelectronic Technology and Lightwave Communications Systems
11) is very small. It never goes to zero because, as we shall 22 • OPTICAL FIBER WAVEGUIDES see later, higher-order derivatives contribute there. 0 out past 1300 and modify So (also later). 1 ns/km, so that from Eq. (11) a light-emitting diode (LED) 50 nm wide will experience a pulse spreading of about 5 ns/km down the fiber; lasers will be more than 10 times better. 2 nsjkm second-order dispersion. With lasers this is smaller still, but for maximum benefit the source wavelength As must be positioned quite close to .
One is heavy-metal oxides. These are oxides of AI, Ba, Bi, Ca, Ga, Ge, K, La, Pb, Sb, Ta, Te, W, and Zn that can be fabricated by the conventional crucible or vapor techniques used for silicate glasses. 0 jim for a Sb 2 0 3-doped Ge0 2 fiber has been reported to date. 7 jim, so that waveguide dispersion would be important in shifting that wavelength. The cost of germania and the marginal attenuation advantage of these fibers may preclude extensive development. Another class is heavy-metal halides.
55 11m, lasers are numerous: hydrogen fluoride (HF), deturium fluoride (OF), color center, and even He-Ne. Wavelength-tunable lead salts (Pb ternaries of Cd, S, Ge, Te, Se, Sn) have been made into laser diodes, and alloys of HgCdTe and structures of GaInAsSb and of InAsPSb have been made into emitter and detector diodes. Josephson devices and InAsSb diodes may also be used as detectors. Cryogenic cooling has been sometimes required for these smallbandgap materials, and several are too slow; but the technology learned with GaAIAs and InGaAsP room-temperature devices is being applied to these materials as well; emitters and detectors may be ahead ofmid-IR fibers at this time.