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By Andreas Pyka, Visit Amazon's Andrea Scharnhorst Page, search results, Learn about Author Central, Andrea Scharnhorst,

The technological know-how of graphs and networks has develop into via now a well-established device for modelling and reading numerous structures with numerous interacting parts. ranging from the actual sciences, functions have unfold swiftly to the average and social sciences, in addition to to economics, and are actually extra prolonged, during this quantity, to the concept that of strategies, considered commonly.

In an summary, systems-theoretical procedure, innovation could be understood as a serious occasion which destabilizes the present nation of the method, and leads to a brand new strategy of self-organization resulting in a brand new sturdy state.

The contributions to this anthology handle diverse facets of the connection among innovation and networks. a number of the chapters contain techniques in evolutionary economics, agent-based modeling, social community research and econophysics and discover the epistemic pressure among insights into economics and society-related approaches, and the insights into new varieties of advanced dynamics.

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In this early phase, we can expect new variables to be poorly connected to those existing in the previous network of knowledge. Thus, the emergence, or revolutionary, phase of a new paradigm is likely to be accompanied by a falling connectivity of the network of knowledge. On the other hand, we can expect the subsequent phase of normal science to be characterized by a growing number of links, and thus by a growing network connectivity. In a broader sense, the representation of knowledge as a correlational and as retrieval/interpretative structure is compatible with the idea of knowledge as an organized structure, to which both Kuhn’s and Lakatos’ theories belong (Chalmers, 1980).

Popular belief holds that geography no longer matters in scientific collaboration. With the arrival of cheap air travel, English as a global language and the Internet, science has become truly global – at least according to common wisdom. What is more, increasing funding opportunities to engage in international partnerships have further facilitated long-distance collaboration. , 1993; Frenken, 2002; Wagner and Leydesdorff, 2005; Maggioni and Uberti, 2007). Yet, without disputing the secular trend of the internationalisation of scientific research in recent history, the ‘death of distance’ hypothesis has not been proven in this particular field.

Thus, two researchers from organisations with similar backgrounds are more inclined to collaborate over longer distances than two researchers with different backgrounds. In short, despite the decreased costs associated with long-distance collaboration due to cheap air travel and the Internet, and despite the efforts of the European Commission to further promote international collaboration with the European Union, we expect ‘proximity’ – both in the form of geographical and in the form of institutional proximity – to remain an important determinant of research collaboration (Gertler, 2005; Boschma, 2005; Torre and Rallet, 2005).

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