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By Torbjörn Tännsjö

This booklet originated from a dialogue among the writer, Derek Parfit and Wlodek Rabinowicz, and additional constructed in correspondence and extreme discussions with Wlodek Rabinowics and John Broome. the writer disputes the new development in metaethics that specializes in purposes instead of norms. The reader is invited to take a brand new examine the normal metaethical questions of ethical semantics, ontology, and epistemology.

The writer in general issues himself with specific features of those difficulties: Which are the issues of morality? Are there many various ethical questions, or, do all of them, within the base line, decrease to at least one? The daring declare made during this booklet is that there's only one: What needs to be performed? furthermore, there's only one resource of normativity, only one type of 'ought'-question, which lends itself to an objectively right and authoritative solution.

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Besides this we have moral arguments as well, I submit. They do belong to the topic of this book, but they will be discussed in the next chapter. It might be thought that, by saying that the reason that a person did something was that he thought so and so, we do not always do justice to the first-person perspective. ’ But the reason that this is offensive is that the person would not herself put the explanation like this. If she did, it would sound as though she wasn’t sure. Perhaps he didn’t cheat on her after all.

Moreover, some facts about the same case may be accessible to one person but not to another. I suppose the idea of a filter then implies that the epistemic situation of the agent is decisive to what reasons there are. But suppose I know that horse A with high odds will win since I have arranged for this to happen. Would it then be false if I were to claim that the agent had most reasons to bet on horse A? This does not seem to be a correct characterisation of the situation. Dancy defends the existence of the filter with the help of two arguments: ...

But those who want to say that a person has a reason not to travel by car in the circumstances are free to say so. And it is easy to make sense of their use of the word ‘reason’ – in terms of the notion here characterised. According to them, a person has a ‘reason’ to F if, had this person possessed all the relevant knowledge of his situation, he would have had a Humean reason to F. Their talk of reasons, then, easily translates into mine. What about seriously false but deeply entrenched beliefs, then?

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