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By Ayman Hafiz Amer Eissa

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In intermolecular transgalactosylation (C), there is an enzymatic transfer to another nucleo‐ philic acceptor (Y), which can be all the sugars present in the reaction media, resulting in GOS mixtures. Production of GOS can be improved increasing the reaction temperature. Lactose has relatively low solubility at room temperature, which increases with increasing temperature. Therefore high temperatures are desirable since they allow the increase of lactose concentration [94,95]. Besides the possibility to increase the solubility of subtracts and products, high temperature is advantageous due to the reduced risk of microbial contamination, lower viscosity and improved transfer rates [96].

Additionally, reverse micelle systems, in which the enzyme is entrapped in an aqueous micelle surrounded by organic solvent, provide decrease of the thermodynamic activity of water [92,93]. Chen et al. 2003 [93] reported that the transgalacto‐ sylation capability of low concentrations of β-galactosidase and lactose, operating in reverse micelles system, was similar to high concentrations of enzyme and substrate in an aqueous system. Authors also showed that GOS production decreases with the increase in water content.

It is possible to obtain chitooligosaccharides from those residues, after prior demineralization and deproteinization by acid and alkali treatments [129]. Chitooligosaccharides are produced by chemical methods or by enzymatic methods from chitosan, produced by alkaline N-deacetylation. At industrial scale, the chemical route is used to produce chitooligosaccharides; however, this methodology presents several disadvantages such as high cost, low yield due to indiscriminate breaks of the polymer chain, production of toxic compounds due to modification on the chitin structure, as well as, corrosion and environmental hazards [130].

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