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Extra resources for Financial Markets Volatility and Performance in Emerging Markets (National Bureau of Economic Research Conference Report)
SD = standard deviation. AIC = Akaike Information Criteria. SC = Schwarz Criteria.
M. Spiegel. 2004. A gravity model of sovereign lending: Trade, default, and credit. IMF Staﬀ Papers 51:50–63. Washington, DC: International Monetary Fund. Sims, C. 1972. Money, income and causality. American Economic Review 62:540–52. Smith, K. , and D. Valderrama. 2006. The composition of capital flows when emerging market firms face financing constraints. S. Naval Academy and Federal Reserve Bank of San Francisco. Unpublished Manuscript. Swenson, D. L. 2004. Foreign investment and the mediation of trade flows.
Export revenues were also strictly regulated. As we have seen, since 1933 exporters have been subject to surrender requirements within a specified period, 360 days as of March 2007. Forward foreign currency agreements (ACC), a mechanism to provide credit for exports, are also restricted even today to a maximum 360 days prior to shipping. Based on the methodology of Cardoso and Goldfajn (1997), we updated the indexes of controls on capital inflows and outflows through 2004. The original article had constructed the indexes through 1996, and we updated them.