By Hui, Rongqing; O'Sullivan, Maurice
This booklet is an imperative number of key optical dimension innovations crucial for constructing and characterizing cutting-edge photonic units and fiber optic structures. supplied are accomplished and systematic descriptions of varied fiber optic dimension equipment with the emphasis at the realizing of optoelectronic sign processing methodologies, assisting the reader to weigh up the professionals and cons of every method and identify their suitability for the duty to hand.
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This booklet is an integral number of key optical size thoughts crucial for constructing and characterizing ultra-modern photonic units and fiber optic platforms. supplied are accomplished and systematic descriptions of varied fiber optic dimension tools with the emphasis at the knowing of optoelectronic sign processing methodologies, aiding the reader to weigh up the professionals and cons of every strategy and identify their suitability for the duty handy.
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Additional resources for Fiber Optic Measurement Techniques
The result of the avalanche process is that each input photon may generate multiple free electrons and holes. In this case, the responsivity expression of the photodiode needs to be modified as RAPD ¼ MAPD RPIN ¼ MAPD ql hc ð1:2:18Þ where MAPD is defined as the APD gain. Since the avalanche process depends on the applied external voltage, the APD gain strongly depends on the reverse bias. An often used simple expression of APD gain is MAPD ¼ 1 1 À ðV =VB ÞnB ð1:2:19Þ where nB is a parameter that depends on the device structure and the material.
Large load resistance helps reducing thermal noise; however, as we discussed in the last section, receiver bandwidth will be reduced by increasing the RC constant. In most high-speed optical receivers, 50O is usually used as a standard load resistance. Shot noise arises from the statistic nature of photodetection. 8 trillion photons hit the photodiode every second. However, these photons are not synchronized and they come randomly. The generated photocurrent will fluctuate as the result of this random nature of photon arrival.
If the grating is uniform, this effective reflectivity has two major resonance peaks separated by a deep stop band. As a result, a conventional DFB laser generally has two degenerate longitudinal modes and the wavelength separation between these two modes is Dl ¼ 4vg l2g =Lc. Although residual reflectivity from laser facets may help to suppress one of the two degenerate modes by breaking up the symmetry of transfer function, it is usually not reliable enough for mass production. 15(b). 16(b). This ensures single longitudinal mode operation in the laser diode at the Bragg wavelength.