By Frederick Grinnell
Clinical evidence should be so complex that in simple terms experts in a box totally savor the main points, however the nature of daily perform that provides upward thrust to those evidence can be comprehensible by means of everybody drawn to technological know-how. This e-book describes how scientists convey their very own pursuits and passions to their paintings, illustrates the dynamics among researchers and the examine group, and emphasizes a contextual figuring out of technological know-how as opposed to the linear version present in textbooks with its singular specialise in ''scientific method.'' Everyday perform of Science additionally introduces readers to matters approximately technology and society. perform calls for price judgments: What may be performed? Who should still do it? Who should still pay for it? How a lot? Balancing medical possibilities with societal wishes is dependent upon appreciating either the guarantees and the ambiguities of technological know-how. realizing perform informs discussions approximately the best way to deal with examine integrity, clash of curiosity, and the problem of recent genetics to human learn ethics. Society can't have the advantages of learn with no the hazards. The final bankruptcy contrasts the practices of technological know-how and faith as reflective of 2 sorts of religion and describes a holistic framework during which they dynamically have interaction.
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Additional info for Everyday Practice of Science: Where Intuition and Passion Meet Objectivity and Logic
They think of science as a mere collection of facts rather than as high adventure. “Dry as dust,” commented Nobel Laureate Leon Lederman (29). Shortly before his death in 1994, I heard Nobel Laureate Linus Pauling lecture at a science education workshop. Pauling began his personal reﬂection by holding up a contemporary college chemistry text. He suggested that the book was too thick—several inches too thick. In his view, textbooks had become collections of facts divorced from understanding. Divorced from understanding reﬂects at least in part the omission of everyday practice from science education.
First possibility—wrong expectations or predictions. ( 38 ) DISCOVERY Second possibility—wrong experimental design or methods. Further complicating matters, much of biomedical research depends on analysis of populations. Predictions about populations cannot be transferred easily to individuals. Overwhelming evidence links cigarette smoking with lung cancer. Many people develop lung cancer without smoking. Others have smoked and not developed the disease. Individual exceptions cannot disprove population-based conclusions.
If, instead of fastest, best means “most scenic,” then what method should be used? ( 37 ) EVERYDAY PRACTICE OF SCIENCE Other issues emerge: How should traﬃc accidents be counted? Even in the absence of traﬃc accidents, some day-to-day variation in transit time inevitably will emerge for a given route. How many drives along each route should be tested before reaching any conclusions? Prior decisions and commitments not only will inﬂuence how the research is carried out, but also will determine the potential results that might be obtained.