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By H. Tristram Engelhardt Jr., S.F. Spicker

This quantity inaugurates a sequence touching on philosophy and drugs. There are few, if any, components of social predicament so pervasive as drugs and but as underexamined by way of philosophy. however the declare to priority of the complaints of the 1st Trans-Disciplinary Symposium on Philos­ ophy and drugs has to be certified. Claims to be "first" are infamous within the background of medical in addition to humanistic research and the declare that the 1st Trans-Disciplinary Symposium on Philosophy and drugs has no precedent isn't really intended to be installed bald shape. The editors truly don't hold that philosophers and physicians haven't heretofore mentioned concerns of mutual difficulty, nor that exact philosophers and physicians have by no means taken up difficulties and ideas in medication that are themselves on the boundary or interface of those disciplines - strategies like "matter," "disease," "psyche. " without doubt there were books released at the good judgment and philosophy of medi­ 1 cine. however the formalization of matters and ideas in drugs has now not bought, not less than during this century, sustained curiosity by way of expert phi­ losophers. teams of philosophers haven't engaged drugs as a way to explicate its philosophical presuppositions and to deal with many of the options which seem in medication. The scope of such an attempt takes the thinker past difficulties and concerns which at the present time are subsumed lower than the rubric "medical ethics.

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Extra resources for Evaluation and Explanation in the Biomedical Sciences: Proceedings of the First Trans-Disciplinary Symposium on Philosophy and Medicine Held at Galveston, May 9–11, 1974

Sample text

But they are healths, the opposites of diseases. During the 18th, 19th, and 20th centuries, no classifications of healths have been created in the same way that classifications of diseases have been prepared. Physicians would probably belittle such a suggestion. Diseases are derangements of the structures and functions of the parts of an individual human body. If they are not deranged, they are healthy. Every textbook of human anatomy or physiology is believed to be a portrait of human health: Normality is the absence of abnormality; Ease is the absence of Dis-Ease.

In the 17th century, Sydenham believed that it was possible to identify a "natural history" of a given disease, that is, a strictly objective description of the naturally spontaneous sequence of abnormal functions represented as symptoms and signs. He believed that every disease could be characterized with its specific history. A score or more of 18th century clinicians, including Sauvages, Linne, Cullen, and Pinel, created elaborate and detailed catalogues of diseases according to symptoms and signs.

Hygiene, as applied physiology, was transformed into preventive medicine, as the fight to preserve health by destroying the microbes that produced contagious diseases. In addition, personal hygiene was subsumed by public hygiene. 14 In schools of medicine, hygiene was taught primarily as a matter of infectious disease control. For example, lectures in hygiene were given in the physiology department at the University of Texas Medical Branch in the 1890's and even during the first decade of the 20th century.

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