By George Fink
Just like the first version, the second one variation of the Encyclopedia of tension covers approximately each achievable element and ramification of rigidity together with quite a lot of comparable subject matters resembling neuroimmune interactions, cytokines, enzymatic problems, results at the cardiovascular method, immunity and irritation, and actual health problems. over the past decade, scientists have offered convincing study exhibiting that mental rigidity raises vulnerability to disorder. They now comprehend extra in actual fact that rigidity could be the thread tying jointly health problems that have been formerly believed to be unrelated. Bone loss, elevated stomach fats, and broken reminiscence cells within the hippocampus were associated with increased cortisol degrees. construction at the good fortune of the 1st version, this thoroughly revised paintings surveys the enormous quantity of analysis generated some time past 5 years, leading to a considerable revision with over 30% new fabric and over a hundred new entries. improved sections comprise Animal reviews, nervousness and melancholy, medications, melancholy, mess ups, and mental and different remedies. additionally to be had on-line through ScienceDirect (2007) - that includes vast shopping, looking, and inner cross-referencing among articles within the paintings, plus dynamic linking to magazine articles and summary databases, making navigation versatile and straightforward. for additional info, pricing suggestions and availability stopover at www.info.sciencedirect.com. * well timed replace relating to Post-Traumatic rigidity ailment bearing in mind occasions equivalent to terrorism and heart east wars* comprises elevated insurance on nervousness and melancholy * contains entries at the advances in our wisdom of immunology, cytokines and mobilephone mediated immunity inquisitive about rigidity responses and autoimmune ailments corresponding to a number of sclerosis and sort I diabetes
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Additional info for Encyclopedia of Stress, Three-Volume Set, 2nd ed
Interestingly, dissociation per se is not a symptom of PTSD. However, there is much support for the idea that if people dissociate at the time of trauma, they are at an increased risk to develop PTSD (Table 1). Most studies examining the relationship between dissociation at the time of a trauma and development of PTSD have been retrospective, in some studies, assessing the dissociation 25 years after the traumatic experiences. This means that assessment of dissociation is based largely on subjective recollections of victims.
Physical stressors include cold, heat, intense radiation, noise, vibration, and many others. Chemical stressors include ether, all poisons, and insulin. Pain stress may be elicited by many different chemical and physical agents. Psychological stressors profoundly affect emotional processes and may result in behavioral changes such as anxiety, fear, or frustration. Social stressors include an animal’s placement into the territory of a dominant animal and in humans unemployment and marital separation among others.
This article is reproduced from the previous edition, volume 1, pp 8–16, ã 2000, Elsevier Inc. Overview of Acute Stress Responses Stress-Responsive Neuroendocrine Systems Types of Acute Stressors Summary and Conclusions Glossary Footshock Hemorrhage Hypoglycemia Immobilization Neuroendocrine signature A laboratory stressor that involves placing a laboratory rat or mouse into a chamber with a floor of metal rods spaced equally apart. Scrambled electric current of known intensity is passed through the metal rods and this results in a mildly painful stimulus to the animal’s footpads.