Download Encyclopedia of Prehistory: Volume 1: Africa by Sibel Barut Kusimba, Fred H. Smith (auth.), Peter N. PDF

By Sibel Barut Kusimba, Fred H. Smith (auth.), Peter N. Peregrine, Melvin Ember (eds.)

The Encyclopedia of Prehistory represents additionally outlined through a a bit of various set of an try to offer simple details sociocultural features than are eth­ on all archaeologically identified cultures, nological cultures. significant traditions are protecting the full globe and the full outlined according to universal subsistence prehistory of humankind. it really is designed as practices, sociopolitical association, and a device to aid in doing comparative fabric industries, yet language, ideology, examine at the peoples of the prior. so much and kinship ties play very little half in of the entries are written by way of the world's their definition simply because they're nearly optimal specialists at the specific parts unrecoverable from archaeological con­ and time sessions. texts. by contrast, language, ideology, and The Encyclopedia is geared up accord­ kinship ties are primary to defining ethno­ ing to significant traditions. an important culture logical cultures. is outlined as a bunch of populations sharing There are 3 different types of entries within the related subsistence practices, know-how, Encyclopedia: the main culture access, and varieties of sociopolitical association, the nearby sub culture access, and the that are spatially contiguous over a rela­ website access. every one comprises sorts of tively huge region and which suffer pace­ info, and every is meant to be rally for a comparatively lengthy interval. minimum utilized in a special way.

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Religion and Expressive Culture Several unique features typify the Later Acheulean: prepared core methods of flake manufacture; an increase Acheulean in the use of bone and antler tools, particularly at sites like Bilzingsleben, Germany; the use of red ocher pebbles, which often bear marks of use; and the presence of deliberately marked bone and antler tools. These types of artifacts may indicate that Later Acheulean people had increased symbolic capacity. References Bordes, Fran"ois (1984). eolithique, Vol.

Economy Subsistence. Acheulean people were gatherers of wild plants and scavengers and/or hunters of animal foods. Whether they procured meat through hunting or scavenging has been the subject of numerous taphonomic studies, which have yielded equivocal results. Many Acheulean sites evidence the butchery of one or several large and small animals (Torralba and Ambrona; Elandsfontein; Gadeb; Mwaganda's Village, an elephant butchery site from Malawi; and the BK site at Olduvai Gorge). Unfortunately, secure evidence of hunting by Acheulean hominids is often lacking at these sites; carnivore as well as hominid activity shows that hominids and other carnivores may have exploited the same animals by hunting or scavenging; furthermore, many animals could have died natural deaths, and their carcasses could have been scavenged later.

Thus, Boxgrove represents typical Acheulean, like other early Northern European sites. The site is clearly one of the earliest traces of human habitation in the northern portions of Europe and constitutes one of the least controversial sites reflecting the initial occupation of the continent. A portion of an adult human leg bone (a left tibial shaft) was recovered from the artifact-bearing deposits at Boxgrove in 1993. The bone indicates a very robust individual with body proportions like the subsequent Neanderthals.

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