By Hari Singh Nalwa, Foreword by Richard E. Smalley
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4. , visualization of proteins within a cell) using gold nanoparticles attached to an antibody that binds specifically to a protein is a commonly used method in electron microscopy studies of cells. The combination of the reliable immunological methods for producing good quality monoclonal and polyclonal antibodies and the techniques for complexing proteins onto gold nanoparticles to form immunological probes allows the investigation of a vast range of antigens in cells and tissues. These gold conjugates can be used in a wide range of applications.
153. E. Barborini, P. Piseri, A. Podestà, and P. Milani, Appl. Phys. Lett. 77, 1059 (2000). 154. A. A. Zakhidov, R. H. Baughman, Z. Iqbal, C. Cui, I. Khayrullin, S. O. Dantas, J. Marti, and V. G. Ralchenko, Science 282, 897 (1998). Cluster-Assembled Nanostructured Carbon 155. E. Franckowiac, S. Gautier, H. Gaucher, S. Bonnamy, and F. Beguin, Carbon 37, 61 (1999). 156. I. Boscolo, P. Milani, M. Parisotto, G. Benedek, and F. Tazzioli, J. Appl. Phys. 87, 4005 (2000). 157. B. E. ” Kluwer, New York, 1999.
The ﬁrst technique consists of the in-situ preparation of the nanoparticles in the matrix. This is effected either by the reduction of metal salts dissolved in the polymer matrix [75–77] or by the evaporation of metals on the heated polymer surface . A second technique involves polymerizing the matrix around the nanoparticles . Lennox et al. . proposed a desirable approach that involved blending premade nanoparticles into a presynthesized polymer matrix. Coating gold nanoparticles ﬁrst with a polymer ligand chemically similar to the polymer matrix made mixing of the gold nanoparticles with the polymeric matrix thermodynamically more favorable and thus more compatible as compared to coatings with polymer ligands that were chemically different from the matrix .