By Stanley, Editor Wolpert
Domestic to a 5th of the world's inhabitants and the most important democracy on the planet, India holds a famous position in present occasions but is still misunderstood in lots of methods through scholars, execs and others who search a unmarried, authoritative resource for info in this very important quarter. The Encyclopedia of India meets this want, encompassing the historical past, cultures, geography and religions of India from precedent days to the current day. around the 4 volumes of the Encyclopedia, readers are invited to discover India in a finished reference paintings of greater than six hundred alphabetically prepared, illustrated articles. As India's position in worldwide politics and economics maintains to develop, readers will locate the ancient and cultural details contained inside this paintings an necessary device to gaining a better appreciation of India and its position in our sleek global.
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Tharoor, Shashi. ” Hindu, 8 June 2003. Wali, Kameshwar C. Chandra. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1990. C. These earliest monastic complexes are both freestanding (as at Bha¯rhut) and rock-cut (as at Bha¯ja¯), but in all instances the earliest sculptural decoration is composed mainly of deities and spirits associated with popular religious practices. Along with these images of local deities, who seem to have functioned as guardians, we also occasionally find bas-relief narrative scenes depicting moments from the Buddha’s life, as well as scenes detailing the events of his many past lives, known collectively as Jataka (birth) tales.
In this period, Adinatha (the first Jina) is recognized by the hair falling on shoulders, Neminatha (the twenty-second Jina) with his contemporary Hindu divinities Balarama and Krishna, and Parshvanatha or Suparshvanatha, seen through a snake canopy. A number of Jain images bear Brahmi epigraphs in Buddhist hybrid Sanskrit, furnishing useful historic information about the Jain community in the Kushana age. The carved stone railings around the Jain and Buddhist stupas and chaityas were the most attractive parts of those monuments, and the Mathura railings are full of wonderful details, including charming females from Bhuteshwar and Kankali.
He was knighted in 1919, and was the first president of the Indian Chemical Society, founded in 1924. Meghnad Saha made his name in astrophysics. A contemporary of Satyendra Nath Bose at Calcutta’s Presidency College, Saha was taught by Jagadis Chandra Bose and P. C. Ray. In 1919 he published his paper “On Selective Radiation Pressure and Its Applications,” about radiation in stars, in the American Astrophysical Journal. Saha’s “ions theory” explained for the first time the unusual photon line spectra in starlight as being the result of the presence of ions in stellar matter, formed by the removal of various numbers of electrons from radiating atoms.