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By Fred Skolnik

The hot variation of Encyclopaedia Judaica brings a enormous reference paintings into the twenty-first century. In 1928 Nahum Goldman, head of Eshkol Publishing, in Berlin, begun paintings on a complete reference paintings in regards to the historical past and tradition of the Jewish humans. That paintings used to be by no means accomplished, and the ten accomplished volumes stay as either a witness to eu Jewish scholarship and a reminder of Hitler's destruction of that culture. Goldman survived the Holocaust, and in 1966, he used his reparation funds to restore paintings at the encyclopedia at Keter Publishing condominium, in Jerusalem. In 1972, greater than forty five years after the paintings begun, the 1st version used to be accomplished. Keter Publishing apartment and Macmillan Reference united states, its American associate, published Hebrew and English-language models of the paintings. just like the unique paintings, it was once an intensive, prepared review of Jewish existence and information. Updating a wide source is hard. The publishers issued yearbooks and supplementations cumulating the 1973–1982 and 1983–1992 volumes in addition to an up to date CD-ROM model in 1997, however the Jewish international has replaced greatly because then. the second one version is usually a collaboration of Keter Publishing condominium and Macmillan Reference, that is now a Thomson Gale imprint. Editors Berenbaum and Skolnik collected a world workforce of greater than 50 divisional editors and 1,200 students to supply the paintings. they've got created 22 volumes with nearly 22,000 entries. a few 2,600 entries are new, and 12,000 were considerably revised. As they did in Encyclopedia of faith (2004), the publishers left the unique articles intact and further up to date fabric in an appended article that follows. This version has one hundred fifty pages of colour inserts showing as centerfolds in every one quantity in addition to six hundred maps, tables, and illustrations. There also are 30,000 new biographical entries. Why is that this version various? construction at the scholarship of the 1st version, the editors have extra fabric that files modern-day Jewish groups. because the e-book of the 1st variation, Israel has been via wars and intifadas, the position of ladies in Jewish lifestyles has drastically extended, and the Soviet Union has disappeared. the main swiftly transforming into Jewish groups within the U.S. are in Las Vegas and Phoenix, however the genuine variety of Jews within the nation is declining because of low delivery premiums. a complete new new release of scholarship has emerged, with new information regarding every little thing from the Bible and the Talmud to women's reports and the Holocaust. The members to this variation used the fabric of the good students comparable to Salo Baron, Cecil Roth, and Gershom Scholem as a origin for his or her new insights, giving clients higher intensity and a latest standpoint. quantity 1 has an inventory of the editors and members. They comprise Yehuda Bauer (Hebrew University), David Ellenson (Hebrew Union College), Deborah E. Lipstadt (University of California, Los Angeles), and Xun Zhou (University of London). The encyclopedia beneficial properties entries reminiscent of an editorial on Jewish legislations (Mishpat Ivri) written by way of Justice Menachem Elon, deputy president of the very best court docket of Israel. He examines historic spiritual legislations as mirrored within the courts of a latest, sovereign Jewish nation. Entries in regards to the Bible contain either the good medieval commentators reminiscent of Rashi and Maimonides and smooth severe literary stories of the Bible as an built-in paintings. members learn the assets of the Bible, its composition, and its authors. The Talmud gets related remedy, with greater than a hundred biographies of the larger and lesser rabbinic figures and extra obtainable fabric, reflecting the elevated participation of the general public in Talmudic learn. The women's viewpoint seems during the encyclopedia, with articles approximately biblical stereotypes, their perspectives concerning the mikveh (ritual bath), and biographies of ladies either historical and glossy (Beruryah, a second-century Talmud student; Bella Abzug). Agunah (Orthodox ladies who can't remarry simply because their husbands refuse to provide them spiritual divorces) and insurance of the bat mitzvah and the ladies of the Wall case are different examples of the elevated emphasis on women's matters during this version. huge articles rfile the contributions of Jews to the humanities, sciences, activities, politics, and leisure. Albert Einstein, Rita Levi-Montalcini, Amos oz., and Philip Roth seem besides Victor Borge, Jascha Heifetz, and Sandy Koufax. all of the 50 states and the international locations of the area, in addition to significant towns, have entries, as do museums, cultural associations, and corporations. The Holocaust and Israel occupy the foremost a part of volumes nine and 10, respectively, reflecting their very important roles in Jewish background and tradition. numerous thematic outlines (for articles on heritage, faith, language and literature, Jews in global tradition, and girls) and a close index support clients pinpoint particular details. The booklet model makes use of the traditional Gale interface and is out there as a part of the Gale digital Reference heart. One great function for clients who print or obtain is the choice of having the textual content in PDF layout if wanted. the second one variation of Encyclopaedia Judaica is a welcome boost to reference collections. by means of documenting the fashionable Jewish event whereas maintaining hyperlinks with its wealthy prior, it offers clients with information regarding all facets of Jewish faith and tradition. This paintings got the 2006 Dartmouth Medal, a hard-earned award.

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Kaunas was taken by Soviet forces on Aug. 1, 1944. Most of the Jewish survivors did not return to Lithuania, but chose to remain in the *Displaced Persons’ camps, where they were later joined by other Jews from Kaunas who had left Lithuania after its liberation. Contemporary Period Most of the survivors from Kaunas eventually settled in Israel. Jews settled there from other places, however. 24 of the total) in 1959. There was a synagogue. In 1961 a Jewish amateur theater troupe (Yidisher Selbsttetigkeyt Kolektiv), consisting of a drama group, choir, orchestra, and dance group, was organized in Kaunas, holding public performances from time to time.

Pp. 402–9; Edut Ḥ ayyah: Getto Kovna bi-Temunot (1958). [Joseph Gar] KAUSHANY (Rom. E. Moldova. A number of tombstones in the ancient Jewish cemetery in Kaushany, thought to date from the 16t century, indicate that there may have been Jews living in the place in this period. However, it is certain that there was a Jewish settlement in Kaushany by the beginning of the 18t century, when it was the center of the Tatar rule in southern Bessarabia. By 1817 it numbered 53 Jewish families. The community increased with the large Jewish immigration into Bessarabia in the 19t century, and in 1897 numbered 1,675 persons (45 of the total population).

In the exilic period, Israel began to move the monotheistic teaching beyond its territorial borders. On Kaufmann’s reading, the Bible was so fundamentally the product of a monotheistic world view that it claimed that all humans were originally monotheistic; it was human rebelliousness that produced the religious retrogression of paganism. Kaufmann went so far as to argue that Israelites of the biblical period had no understanding of polytheism. Ancient Israelites did not even know how to worship gods other than Yahweh and assumed that their neighbors worshipped fetishes of wood and stone.

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