Download Echo-Planar Imaging: Theory, Technique and Application by Franz Schmitt, Michael K. Stehling, Robert Turner, P. PDF

By Franz Schmitt, Michael K. Stehling, Robert Turner, P. Mansfield

This publication describes purposes and methods of the MRI approach to echo-planar imaging. I includes specific and designated bills of photo creation, artifacts, and optimization equipment. purposes are imaging of mind functionality, stroke and cerebral blood circulate in addition to cardiac and belly scientific uses.

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Since the spatial resolution in an MR image is proportional to (GXTrI, where G is the strength of the magnetic field gradient, it can be seen that the reduction in T required by EPI necessitates a compensating increase in gradient strength if the resolution is not to be compromised. Unfortunately, not only does the applied magnetic field gradient have to be large, but it also must be rapidly reversed so as to produce a train of gradient echoes. The generation of large, rapidly switched magnetic field gradients requires the use of highly efficient gradient coils, of low inductance in conjunction with powerful amplifiers and often special gradient switching circuitry.

Schmitt Introduction The extremely short image acquisition times afforded by the echo-planar imaging (EPI) technique [1] can only be achieved by imposing heavy demands on magnetic resonance (MR) scanner hardware. The high performance required, particularly in the generation of large rapidly switched magnetic field gradients, meant that in the past it was generally not possible to implement EPI on standard clinical imaging systems, and consequently much of the development of the technique has taken place on dedicated, research-oriented systems with modified hardware.

One important use of conjugate symmetry is in echo time reduction. Because the overall readout periods in EPI are rather long, the echo time (usually coincident with the collection of the central region of k-phase k-phase k-readout k-readout Fig. 10. During a single encoding cycle with EPI a sufficient region of k space is covered to produce a single image of moderate resolution, as indicated by the sampling grid (above). Extending the overall readout duration (below) results in increased coverage of the k phase axis, and thus improved resolution in that dimension 23 2 Theory of Echo-Planar Imaging Fig.

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