By J Paquin, Robert Crowley
Introduces contemporary advancements in die layout instruments corresponding to hydraulic presses. Covers fabrics, punches, die units, stops, strippers, gages, pilots and presses. Divides the layout of every die right into a sequence of unique, effortless to stick with steps. Illustrates every one step in pictorial view and as a section of an engineering drawing. Introduces the weather of arithmetic utilized in the layout of die elements.
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Extra info for Die Design Fundamentals
58 PART I1 THE ANALYSIS OF INDUSTRIAL WATERS finally titrated with standard thiosulfate solution. Upon acidification, chromate (yellow) is transformed to dichromate (orange). The following equations represent the reactions involved : 2 H ' +CrO,,'=Cr2O7=+H20 . +2Cr. 2S,O,- +13-=S40, +31 Any material that oxidizes iodide in acidic solution will, of course, interfere by producing high results. The most significant of these are iron, copper, and nitrite. Iron is rendered innocuous by the addition of ammonium bifluoride, and nitrite by the addition of sulfamic acid, before adding iodide.
In practice, a residual concentration of about 2 ppm Na,SO, is maintained in the feed water, and for additional protection a somewhat higher concentration is maintained in the boiler water. Sulfite reacts with oxygen according to the following equation : fOz+SO =so, = This reaction is rapid at high temperatures, but is slow at ordinary temperatures. To make the preboiler protection more effective, catalysts are added t o the salt which is then sold as "catalyzed" sodium sulfite. Pye (16) discusses the effect of small concentrations of copper and cobalt upon the rate of the above reaction.
8 ppm (NaPO,), Days 0 34 70 100 125 150 175 200 Tripolyphosphate. 0 The rate of hydrolysis is slow in aqueous solution, but increases rapidly with increasing temperature, acidity, or alkalinity. The presence of a precipitable ion, such as calcium, also favors the hydrolysis somewhat by shifting the equilibria represented by the above equations. The precipitate formed by calcium and ortho phosphate is usually represented as the normal phosphate, Ca,(PO,) Attempts to form this salt in the laboratory, however, usually produce hydroxyapatite, the formula of which is written in various ways, including Ca,A con(PO,),(OH),, 3Ca,(PO,),*Ca(OH),, and Ca,(PO,),(OH).