By Christine Ammer
This reference offers in-depth motives and examples of greater than 3000 musical phrases and issues, together with biographies of composers. Spanning early heritage to the current day the dictionary comprises factors of phrases, illustrations of tools, repertory for many of the tools, pronunciations of international phrases and composers and inclusion of charts proposing more information on valuable ballets, operas and symphonies. topics coated contain: a capella; afterbeat; bluegrass; cantata; cajun track; chamber opera; electronic recording; electronica; movie tune; guitar; jazz; masque; second shape; open hamony; pedal clavichord; reggae; string quartet; studio tune; and woodwind quintet.
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Additional resources for Dictionary of Music
Ballate (bäl lä′te) Italian. The most important Italian musical form of the second half of the fourteenth century, closely resembling a French form of the same period, the VIRELAI. The text of the ballata consists of three stanzas that alternate with a refrain, but it differs from ordinary strophic form (stanzas alternating with a fixed refrain) in that the refrain comes both at the beginning and at the end of each stanza, although with different words set to the same music. Originally a monophonic song (with one voice-part), the ballata in time acquired a second and later a third voicepart.
The ars antiqua includes the music of the NOTRE DAME SCHOOL and its two great masters, Leonin and Perotin (twelfth century); the period of the musician and theorist Franco of Cologne (middle to late thirteenth century); and the period of Petrus de Cruce, also known as Pierre de la Croix (end of the thirteenth century). See also the chart accompanying MEDIEVAL MUSIC. The Notre Dame school is known mainly for its organa (see ORGANUM), clausulae (see CLAUSULA), and CONDUCTUS. A later form, perhaps the most important of the ars antiqua, is the MOTET.
They were used for home entertainment and also in small churches that could not afford a large pipe organ or the salary of an organist. Such organs were ordinarily provided with a number of interchangeable barrels, one for each hymn to be played. One form of barrel organ, in France called orgue de barbarie and in England bird organ, was used to teach canaries and other songbirds to sing popular tunes of the day. Early in the nineteenth century, portable barrel organs were made; they were mounted on carts and wheeled through the street by street musicians popularly called organ grinders.