By Pulat K. Khabibullaev, Boris G. Skorodumov, L.G. Earwaker, G. Sicking
Measuring the hydrogen content material in fabrics is critical either for learn and for numerous functions in fabric and floor sciences, equivalent to hydrogen embrittlement of metal, managed thermonuclear response first wall reviews, and adjusted fabric houses because of dissolved hydrogen. Hydrogen is the main tough atomic species to research by means of conventional equipment, yet nuclear physics tools are fairly suited to this objective. President of the Uzbek SSR Academy of Sciences P.K. Khabibullaev and Professor B.G. Skorodumov talk about during this publication the features of those tools, comparable to decrease detection limits, selectivity in admire to diversified isotopes, accuracy, intensity solution and greatest detection intensity. Examples of purposes which are handled comprise the choice of fabric humidity, the relationship of items, the research of hydrogen diffusion together with non-stationary procedures, and the research of alterations in fabric homes like superconductivity, plasticity and electric houses as a result of infection by means of hydrogen.
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Extra resources for Determination of Hydrogen in Materials Nuclear Physics Methods
The use of epithermal neutrons leads to an isotropic angular distribution of the neutrons scattered from metal atoms and to an anisotropic distribution when a scattering event occurs on hydrogen atoms. Therefore, neutron detectors (BF 3 counters or fission chambers) placed on both sides of the sample distinguish between neutrons scattered by the sam29 | 3 5 Fig. 2. Neutronscattering devicefor the hydrogendetermination; (1) reactor neutron beam, (2) neutron transmitter, (3) collimator, (4) sample, (5) neutron detectors, (6) beam catcher ple matrix and those by hydrogen.
However, the background 7 radiation from natural and cosmic sources, as well as impurity-induced reactions with V ray emission should be taken into account. The excitation function of the reaction 1H(15N, aT) 12C in the 15N ion energy range 0-14 MeV (Fig. 1 ) is characterized by two well-separated narrow resonances. 4 MeV seems to be preferable for hydrogen analysis as it limits the size of the accelerators required for the experiments, and at this resonance energy the 15N stopping power is higher.
G. [62-66], and hydrogen diffusion processes. The latter will be considered in Chap. 6. 2 Energy Analysis of Nuclear Reaction Products In the case of resonance nuclear reactions, the energy spectrum of reaction products is of no interest for depth profiling. If there are no resonances in the crosssection of a nuclear reaction that varies smoothly with energy, but there are some other peculiarities of the reaction, which allow us to distinguish the events of interaction with hydrogen among the competing processes on the nuclei of the sample matrix, then the depth information stems from an energy analysis of the emitted particles.