# Download Data Structures and Algorithms in Java, 5th International by M.T. Goodrich and R. Tamassia PDF

By M.T. Goodrich and R. Tamassia

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3: The Java precedence rules. Operators in Java are evaluated according to the ordering above if parentheses are not used to determine the order of eval­ uation. Operators on the same line are evaluated in left-to-right order (except for assignment and prefix operations, which are evaluated right-to-Ieft), subject to the conditional evaluation rule for Boolean and and or operations. The operations are listed from highest to lowest precedence (we use exp to denote an atomic or paren­ thesized expression).

TIle above expression is equivalent to variable = variable op expression except that if variable contains an expression (for example, an array index), the expression is evaluated only once. Thus, the code fragment a[5] 10; 5; a[i++] i 2; leaves a[5] with value 12 and i with value 6. String Concatenation Strings can be composed using the concatenation operator (+), so that the code String String String String rug "carpet"; dog - "spot"; mess = rug + dog; answer::::: mess + II will cost me II + 5+ II hours!

0 Casting with Operators Certain binary operators, like division, will have different results depending on the variable types they are used with. We must take care to make sure operations per­ form their computations on values of the intended type. When used with integers, division does not keep track of the fractional part, for example. 0 Notice that when il and i2 were cast to doubles, regular division for real num­ . bers was performed. When i1 and i2 were not cast, the" /" operator performed an integer division and the result of il / i2 was the int O.