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By Lilian Lewis Shiman

Drink, 'the curse of Britain', used to be sweeping the land, or so it looked as if it would many Englishmen within the early many years of the 19th century. They held it chargeable for crime, poverty and plenty of different ills of the swiftly industrializing cities. A 'moderation' temperance reform geared up in 1829 mostly less than center classification auspices quickly gave option to a thorough dedication to overall abstinence in a good number of employee self-help teams. while those too did not switch the consuming behavior of so much Englishmen the temperance circulate sought new alliances. within the 1870s and Eighteen Eighties Gospel Temperance married temperance to revivalist faith. It got the aid of either tested and non-conformist church buildings, and thousands 'took the pledge'. yet many didn't; and as spiritual enthusiasm light the anti-drink forces shifted their cognizance to the political enviornment. After effectively pressuring the Liberal celebration to undertake constrained prohibition, they fixed a good yet unsuccessful crusade within the 1895 election. With this defeat the anti-drink campaign disintegrated, leaving the committed teetotallers socially remoted within the refuge in their drink-free culture.

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54 There were some brewers and maltsters who became so The Teetotal Lifeboat 29 convinced of the value of teetotal temperance that they gave up their connection with brewing. One of the most active teetotal families in England was founded by John Andrews, a maltster who gave up his profession and became a full-time temperance worker. He started and ran a temperance hotel in Leeds, where his son John junior became chairman of the local temperance society. 5 5 Many other temperance societies owed their existence to the labours of this family.

Mr Bronte, father of the famous Bronte sisters, was the incumbent of the parish. Mr Drury of Keighley chaired the meeting and Rev. D. Taylor of Bingley came to give his support along with Rev. D. Marsh of Sutton. This society did not talk of a 'pledge', but asked its members to sign a 'declaration'. 29 Dissenters also worked with Church of England members in the Wilsden Temperance Society. 30 Closely rivalling the West Riding in its strong temperance spirit was the county of Lancashire. The birthplace of the teetotal movement in the 1830s, it was also the home of the United Kingdom Alliance, the prohibition party, founded in 1853.

As the nature of the movement changed, so did the attitude of the religious leaders towards it. Except for certain non-conformist sects, such as the Primitive Methodists and the Bible Christians, who were active among the lower orders in society, the churches in mid-nineteenth-century England were generally very 'respectable', placing great value on their social position and the esteem in which they were held by the more 'comfortable' classes. THE CHURCH OF ENGLAND AND TEETOTALISM The Church of England in particular, as the religion of the establishment, was very sensitive to deviations from accepted behaviour patterns, viewing with suspicion any new ideas that did not fit into the prevailing orthodox modes of thought and action.

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