By Les Brown
This and the author's 3 earlier books, "Justice", "Morality and Education", and "Conservation and useful Morality" are interrelated of their notions of functional morality and schooling, and the typical end focuses no longer on ethical delinquency or intractability, yet relatively at the human skill for development via acceptable schooling, made tricky yet now not most unlikely by means of the context of social stipulations and social complexities. it's proven that the schooling that's wanted comprises wisdom and figuring out, yet particularly a amendment of attitudes and values.
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Extra info for Cruelty to Animals: The Moral Debt
Because of the difficulties inherent in any precise quantification of pain, human or animal, we may wonder whether, in moral terms of the rightness or wrongness 34 Cruelty to Animals of a particular act, it makes any difference whether the suffering inflicted on an animal is slight or severe, rare or frequent, transient or indefinitely prolonged, in association with many others or in isolation. This provisional conclusion will be reviewed following a further consideration of the notion of interests.
That end is man . ' Though he could see that 'animal nature has analogies to human nature', he spoke of 'doing our duties to animals in respect of manifestations which correspond to manifestations of human nature', in this way indirectly doing our duty to humanity. 21 There is little respect for animals in regarding them merely as means to human ends, or in perceiving no duties to them except in so far as our acts serve our fundamental duties to humanity. Even Kant's acknowledgement that we ought not to be cruel to animals was viewed as important to humans, for by forming habits of cruelty to animals we might more readily give way to cruelty to other humans.
Some animals benefit from raising their young and protecting them, and some find satisfaction from larger gregarious groupings. In other words, humans and animals are similar in having interests, but different according to their respective natures in the kinds of interests they have, and how Practical Morality and the Moral Debt 35 these interests may be either satisfied or frustrated to bring either pleasure or pain. Some of their interests are broadly common, but it is their natures that determine their needs and how their interests are to be fulfilled.