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By Joseph Gill

Initially released in 1959, this ebook presents a close research of the Council of Florence (originally referred to as the Council of Basel). The lifestyles of the Council, which operated in a variety of types from 1431 till the mid-fifteenth century, constituted a key occasion within the background of the Church, the repercussions of which are visible within the improvement of the Reformation. while past bills had analysed the Council in a generalised demeanour or focused on particular facets, this used to be the 1st prolonged examine of its operations. Consummately researched, this booklet can be of price to somebody with an curiosity in ecclesiastical heritage.

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Immanuel Kant, Frances Hutcheson, and James Mill philosophized in the Lockean mode, as did George Berkeley, the next great British philosopher after Locke, who set his extreme idealism against the ostensibly skeptical and atheistic implications of Locke’s thought. ” It helped that he was a public intellectual, not a university professor, and that in his later life he was perhaps the most famous intellectual in Europe. But despite the great respect that Locke commanded in the USA, his thought was not the basis of American moral philosophy.

That was why he preferred not to speak of sociology, which sounded like a bundle of ideas or doctrines. What mattered was the disinterested, scientific pursuit of truth. On the other hand, he assured, the truth disclosed by science was Spencer’s picture of a brutal struggle for survival, which made a mockery of fashionable sentimental humanism. Social evolution was about the competition of life for the limited resources of nature. Culture was the cultivation of physical and psycho-social traits that advanced the struggle for life.

Human consciousness was a source of scientific data, and scientific examination disclosed the existence of a moral sense, from which the principles of a universal ethic could be derived. On that basis Witherspoon reestablished moral philosophy at Princeton and later helped to organize the new American government along with his protégé, James Madison. For Witherspoon, as for hundreds of American clergy who served as college presidents and taught the required course on moral philosophy, the new science of morality served the cause of building up the new Republic.

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