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The transmission delay is tx = packet-length/bandwidth, as given by Eq. 2). 11) The velocity of electromagnetic waves in dry air equals v ≈ 3 × 108 m/s, and in copper or optical fiber it equals v ≈ 2 × 108 m/s. 33 and 5 nanoseconds per meter (ns/m). Given a wireless local area network (W-LAN) where all stations are located within a 100 m diameter, the (maximum) propagation delay is tp ≈ 333 ns. 192 ms. The relationship is illustrated in Figure 1-24(a). Recall from Figure 1-6 that on a 1 Mbps link, 1 bit is 1 μs wide, so the leading edge of the first bit will reach the receiver long before the sender is done with the transmission of this bit.

Pa = τ ⋅ G, where τ = 1 is the slot duration and G is the total arrival rate on the channel (new and backlogged packets, combined). ” We define receiver’s vulnerable period as the time during which other transmissions may cause collision with sender’s transmission. For pure ALOHA, the vulnerable period is two slots long [t − 1, t + 1), as illustrated in Figure 1-27. Any transmission that started within one packet-time before this transmission or during this transmission will overlap with this transmission and result in a collision.

This situation can be dealt with by reliability mechanisms at a higher layer, such as transport-layer protocol. 2). It is therefore more efficient to deal with errors at the link level and retransmit the corrupted packets. The time (in packet transmission units) required for all network nodes to detect a start of a new transmission or an idle channel after a transmission ends is an important parameter. Intuitively, the parameter β is the number of bits that a transmitting station can place on the medium before the station furthest away receives the first bit of the first packet.

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