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By Elia, Marinos

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G. g. the ‘Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool’, ‘MUST’). g. Screen I and II and DETERMINE). Some screening tools have been developed with other aims in mind, including: to identify nutritional status, to identify the need for nutritional intervention, to predict clinical outcomes without nutritional intervention, to predict healthcare use, and to predict clinical outcomes of nutritional interventions. This wide array of screening tools, coupled with the lack of a universally accepted definition for malnutrition and the wide variability between tools in validity, reliability, and ease of use, can create difficulties in choosing a screening tool that is fit for purpose.

Hence, a measurement of plasma osmolarity provides a reasonable measure of both ECF and ICF osmolarity. On the other hand, the movement of ions across cell membranes depends on the presence of specific transporters. These transporters maintain a stable intracellular environment and counter minor fluctuations in ion concentration. In real terms, there is no appreciable inward shift of ions across the cell membrane. It can, therefore, be assumed that equilibration between ECF and ICF osmolarity occurs principally by the movement of water, and not by the movement of osmotically active solutes.

2) facilitates the outward flow of water from blood vessels. 2 Diagrammatic model showing the effect of hydrostatic and oncotic pressure gradients on fluid movements across the capillary wall. P, hydrostatic pressure; Π, oncotic pressure; cap, capillary; int, interstitial. Force gradient In tissues, the interstitial space is separated from the circulation by the capillary membrane and from the ICF by the cell membrane. The interstitial space acts as a buffer for changes which occur in plasma volume.

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