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Chitin strengthens fungal cell walls and peptidoglycan those of bacteria. Plasmodesmata, strands of cytoplasm that protrude through pores in the cell walls and connect the protoplasts of adjacent cells; these are avenues of material transport in plants. F 12/21/00 4:03 PM Page 22 CELLS microtubule oil body vesicle Golgi complex actin filament vacuole ribosomes pit opening and plasmodesmata chloroplast plasma membrane cell wall nucleolus chromatin nucleus nuclear envelope with nuclear pore peroxisomes mitochondrion rough endoplasmic reticulum with attached ribosomes Figure 3-1 ■ ■ Plastids, organelles thought to have an endosymbiotic origin; they have an intricate internal structure of folded membranes that greatly increases the internal surface area on which chemical reactions occur; chloroplasts contain chlorophyll, and their thylakoid membranes are the sites of photosynthesis.
This happens when tissues are wounded, as when branches break or leaves are damaged by insects. The plant repairs itself by dedifferentiating parenchyma cells in the vicinity of the wound, making cells like those injured or else physiologically similar cells. Plants differ from animals in their manner of growth. As young animals mature, all parts of their bodies grow until they reach a genetically determined size for each species. Plant growth, on the other hand, continues throughout the life span of the plant and is restricted to certain meristematic tissue regions only.
The root cap also responds to pressures exerted by the soil particles. Zone of cell division An apical meristem lies under and behind the root cap and, like the stem apical meristem, it produces the cells that give rise to the primary body of the plant. Unlike the stem meristem, it is not at the very tip of the root; it lies behind the root cap. Between the area of active division and the cap is an area where cells divide more slowly, the quiescent center. Most cell divisions occur along the edges of this center and give rise to columns of cells arranged parallel to the root axis.