By Robert Gardner
Booklet by way of Gardner, Robert
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Additional resources for Chemistry Science Fair Projects: Using Acids, Bases, Metals, Salts, and Inorganic Stuff (Chemistry! Best Science Projects)
Begin by soaking a pad of steel wool in a glass of vinegar for 20 minutes. While the steel wool is soaking, add water to a depth of about 2 cm to a shallow plastic container. To make the water more visible, you can add a few drops of food coloring. Pull a few strands of steel wool from the pad that has soaked in vinegar. Roll them into a small, loosely packed ball. The ball should be slightly wider than the diameter of the narrow jar (an olive jar is good) or large test tube you plan to use. Put the steel wool ball into one of the narrow jars or test tubes.
Since for any given volume of oxygen, twice that volume of hydrogen combines with it, Avogadro concluded that the formula for water was H2O. Today we know that Avogadro was right. However, it took half a century before his hypothesis and conclusion about the formula for water was accepted by most chemists. Now, since hydrogen gas is the lightest (least dense) gas known, chemists assigned hydrogen atoms a relative weight of one unit (1 atomic mass unit, or 1 amu). No one knew what the actual weight of an atom was because atoms were too light to be weighed.
Use tape and/or clay, as 34 Identifying Substances shown in Figure 5, to ensure that the thermometer bulb is slightly below the center of the volume of water. Table 2: THE MELTING (OR FREEZING) AND BOILING (OR CONDENSATION) TEMPERATURES OF SOME COMMON SUBSTANCES. 7 35 Chemistry Science Fair Projects thermometer tape Styrofoam cup water Figure 5. At what temperature does water freeze? Identifying Substances Record the temperature of the water in your notebook. Then put the cup with the water and thermometer in a freezer where you can read the thermometer every 10 minutes by simply opening the freezer door.