Download Chemistry for Technologists by G. R. Palin and N. Hiller (Auth.) PDF

By G. R. Palin and N. Hiller (Auth.)

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In an electric field the electrons in a system try to move. Movement involves the acquisition of additional kinetic energy, and this can only occur if higher energy levels are available. This is the case in metals, the higher levels of the unfilled b a n d being available. In an insulator higher energy levels are not available and n o current can flow, unless the applied energy is sufficiently large to bridge the gap between the filled and unfilled bands. This requires an extremely strong applied field.

This is not always possible and depends on the relative sizes of the two types of atom, and their electronic configurations. CHAPTER 5 Thermochemistry Chemical Energy A chemical reaction can be represented by an equation products. reactants This gives no indication of the rate of the reaction, the circumstances under which it will occur, the presence of short-lived intermediaries, or any other information about the mechanism of the reaction. The equation merely indicates the nature of the stable states before and after the reaction, and the amounts of the various species involved.

The nitrogen atom has three unpaired electrons in the 2p orbitals, and each of these forms a single covalent bond with the Is electron of a hydrogen atom. Again this is an oversimplified ex- CHEMICAL 33 BONDING planation used to indicate the nature of the bonding. The actual angle between the three bonds is 107°20', rather t h a n 90°. The difference in the electronegativity values of nitrogen and hydrogen is less t h a n that be- 2 electrons in two 1s orbitals 2 electrons in two 2 ρ orbitals 2H + 0 — 2 electrons in both of the two new orbitals H - O - H (H 0) 2 FIG.

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