By James W. McCoy
This vintage publication has been reprinted by means of well known call for. Analytical chemists and chemical engineers will locate this a good written and good illustrated treatise facing (and discovering options to) the issues of water therapy, plant corrosion, and chemical research attached with the chemical strategy industries, steam and gear crops and petroleum refining. this can be additionally a very good guide for either laboratory and box employees.
desk of Contents
Part I. The Chemical rules of Water Treatment creation (Part I)
1. ambitions in Treating Feed Water for Boilers
2. goals in Treating Water Used for Cooling
Part II. The research of business Waters three. Mineral content material
four. Dissolved Gases
five. Interpretation of Water Analyses
Part III. specific approaches concerning Water therapy 6. research of Foul Waters and Alkaline Sulfide suggestions
7. Chemical cleansing of strategy apparatus
eight. assessment of Cation alternate Resins
Part IV. Chemical research of Scales, Sludges and Deposits creation (Part IV)
nine. initial remedy of the Laboratory pattern
10. The Systematic research of Deposits for the metal components
eleven. The Systematic research of Water-Formed Deposits
12. distinct approaches for Deposit research
thirteen. Interpretation of Analytical effects
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Additional resources for Chemical Analysis of Industrial Water
58 PART I1 THE ANALYSIS OF INDUSTRIAL WATERS finally titrated with standard thiosulfate solution. Upon acidification, chromate (yellow) is transformed to dichromate (orange). The following equations represent the reactions involved : 2 H ' +CrO,,'=Cr2O7=+H20 . +2Cr. 2S,O,- +13-=S40, +31 Any material that oxidizes iodide in acidic solution will, of course, interfere by producing high results. The most significant of these are iron, copper, and nitrite. Iron is rendered innocuous by the addition of ammonium bifluoride, and nitrite by the addition of sulfamic acid, before adding iodide.
In practice, a residual concentration of about 2 ppm Na,SO, is maintained in the feed water, and for additional protection a somewhat higher concentration is maintained in the boiler water. Sulfite reacts with oxygen according to the following equation : fOz+SO =so, = This reaction is rapid at high temperatures, but is slow at ordinary temperatures. To make the preboiler protection more effective, catalysts are added t o the salt which is then sold as "catalyzed" sodium sulfite. Pye (16) discusses the effect of small concentrations of copper and cobalt upon the rate of the above reaction.
8 ppm (NaPO,), Days 0 34 70 100 125 150 175 200 Tripolyphosphate. 0 The rate of hydrolysis is slow in aqueous solution, but increases rapidly with increasing temperature, acidity, or alkalinity. The presence of a precipitable ion, such as calcium, also favors the hydrolysis somewhat by shifting the equilibria represented by the above equations. The precipitate formed by calcium and ortho phosphate is usually represented as the normal phosphate, Ca,(PO,) Attempts to form this salt in the laboratory, however, usually produce hydroxyapatite, the formula of which is written in various ways, including Ca,A con(PO,),(OH),, 3Ca,(PO,),*Ca(OH),, and Ca,(PO,),(OH).