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By Richard Ashcroft, Anneke Lucassen, Professor Michael Parker, Marian Verkerk, Guy Widdershoven

Masking the most equipment for interpreting moral difficulties in sleek medication, Anneke Lucassen, a clinician, starts by way of providing an ethically difficult genetics case drawn from her scientific event. it's then analysed from diverse theoretical issues of view. each one ethicist takes a selected method, illustrating it in motion and giving the reader a uncomplicated grounding in its critical components. each one bankruptcy will be learn by itself, yet comparability among them supplies the reader a feeling of to what volume method in scientific ethics concerns, and the way diverse theoretical beginning issues can result in varied sensible conclusions. on the finish, Lucassen deals a clinician's reaction to some of the moral tools defined.

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Phyllis then reports that she has had ‘the operation’. At around that time she also underwent genetic testing, apparently without actually being asked whether she wished to be genetically tested or not, and without being told that the test results could carry significance for her extended family: ‘he just took the blood sample’. Nevertheless, Phyllis recalls discussions with her oncologist, concerning the reasons for such testing, the results of which – she was led to believe – might be of benefit to herself in determining the best treatment of her particular cancer.

Or should we advise Jane that there is not enough evidence for surgery in any case? Even without these ambiguities I feel it is difficult to know how to proceed when there is such a direct clash of interests between family members. Clearly, negotiation might help but my colleague has tried hard to suggest to Phyllis that it would be in the interest of her family to disclose (and that in itself is difficult to do without breaking Jane’s confidentiality), but she just doesn’t see it as in her best interest.

She has information that is highly relevant to Jane, yet she is withholding it. I think that we should make it a condition of testing in the first place, that it will be all right to use the test result for the benefit of other family members. Of course, I realise this may prevent people like Phyllis taking the test in the first place, so Jane would be no better off, but at least we wouldn’t be in the difficult dilemma we are in now. Personally, I feel it is wrong to be referring Jane on for such major surgery when I have information, which I cannot share with her, that may make this surgery unnecessary.

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