By Marian Moffett, Michael Fazio, Lawrence Wodehouse
This seriously illustrated survey has been elevated in its moment variation to supply scholars of either paintings background and of structure with a world advent to the historical past of architecture.
Note: Scanned colour PDF with OCR.
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Extra info for Buildings across Time: An Introduction to World Architecture (2nd Edition)
All three of these developmental pyramids were built or modified for one of the first pharaohs of the Fourth Dynasty, Sneferu (2575-2551 BCE), whose cult remained active for over 2000 years after his death. At Meidum, six miles south of Saqqara, Sneferu added an outer layer to the pyramid that may have been begun for Huni, the last pharaoh of the Third Dynasty. It began with a stepped core of seven stages, which was transformed into a true pyramid with the addition of two overbuildings. As the third and final outer casing of limestone was being installed, there is evidence that the upper portions of the work collapsed because the pyramid's stonework was insufficiently supported, given the relatively steep angle of inclination (51° 50' 35").
The body was placed at its base, and the shaft was then filled with stone and rubble to deter would-be robbers. In the serdab, a chamber above ground, a statue of the deceased would receive offerings. A later change toward increasing perma nence involved using stone in the construction of the mastaba. THE FIRST PYRAMIDS As the religious ritual prescribed by the priesthood changed to enhance the significance of the pharaoh, the mastaba was likewise enlarged to form a pyramid. At death the pharaoh accompanied the sun god on his daily journey across the sky, and he would therefore need to be lifted skyward in his eternal home.
They believed that human beings were created from the alluvial silt deposits in the river valleys to serve the gods and to relieve them of toil. Because the gods bene fited from human praise, they had to remain in human favor. Thus there was a balance in the creative and destruc tive forces of the gods and a mutual inter-dependence between people and gods. Urban communities developed around religious shrines, the dwelling places of the gods and the reposito ries for surplus food stores, and thus there were monu mental temple complexes at the heart of Sumerian cities.