By Daphna Havkin-Frenkel, Faith C. Belanger
Biotechnology can carry advanced flavors either as fermentation items and unmarried materials. fresh advancements in transgenic study have spawned various experiences within the use of metabolic engineering of biosynthetic pathways to supply high-value secondary metabolites which can increase the flavors of nutrition items. Biotechnology is additionally taking part in an more and more very important function within the breeding of nutrients plants for more suitable flavor.
This booklet offers a distinct assessment of the present state-of-the-art of style construction via biotechnology, interpreting the rules and present equipment of manufacturing flavors from crops and different organisms. Chapters are incorporated on plant tissue tradition, genetic engineering of vegetation for style development and genetic engineering of micro organism and fungi for taste development of fermented drinks and dairy items. The ebook is directed at meals scientists and technologists within the nutrition and flavour industries in addition to lecturers and constituents providers
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Extra info for Biotechnology in Flavor Production
Cerevisiae overexpressing GPD2 and lacking the ALD6 gene had the desired effect of producing more glycerol and less ethanol, without an increase in acetic acid (Eglinton et al. 2002; Remize et al. 1999; Remize et al. 2000a). Recently, the effects of the overexpression of GPD1 in three commercial wine yeast strains have been investigated (Cambon et al. 2006). indd 13 12/3/2007 6:41:21 PM 14 Biotechnology in flavor production ALD6 were deleted to reduce the amount of acetic acid produced. The GPD1 ald6Δ wine strains produced 15–20% less alcohol compared to the wild-type without a major change in the concentration of acetate.
2005a). Higher alcohols are comprised of two categories, aliphatic and aromatic, and they are extremely important in wine and distillates (Nykanen et al. 1977). The aliphatic alcohols include propanol, isoamyl alcohol, isobutanol and active amyl alcohol; the aromatic alcohols consist of 2-phenylethyl alcohol and tyrosol. 2). Many factors influence the final concentration of higher alcohols in alcoholic beverages. In wine, viticultural conditions and the use of different yeast strains during fermentation contribute considerably to variations in higher alcohol profiles and concentrations (Giudici et al.
All these investigations of enzymes involved in the synthesis and breakdown of flavor-active esters help to identify and develop non-GM and GM yeasts that could produce the desired amounts of esters, thereby assisting production of wines and beers with specific flavor profiles for specific market specifications. The ratio of acetyl-CoA to CoA could play an important role in the production of acetate esters (Cordente et al. 2007). For this reason, the effect of overexpressing the mitochondrial carnitine acetyltransferase gene, CAT2, on the aroma profiles of fermentations has been investigated.