Download Biosphere: Ecosystems and Biodiversity Loss by Dana Desonie PDF

By Dana Desonie

Для детей от 12-ти лет
Students know about the probability to the Earths biosphere and to biodiversity because of human actions equivalent to pollutants, worldwide warming and chemical use, and what tools are getting used and built to aid decrease the effect at the setting and animals. comprises full-color images and illustrations, sidebars, word list, learn resources, writer profile and index.

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Extra info for Biosphere: Ecosystems and Biodiversity Loss

Sample text

The majority of mammals are placental: The fetus is nourished by a uterine placenta, and the young are born fully developed. 25 ounces (7 grams) in weight, to the South American Capybara, which weighs 100 pounds (45 kilograms). Rodents repro-­ duce rapidly and are good food sources for larger animals. They spread seeds and also diseases: The Black Plague pandemic of the ­mid-­fourteenth century, which killed about ­ one-­third of Europe’s population, was spread by black rats. Bats (order Chiroptera) are the only true flying mammals.

Ecosystems occur on many scales; they can be as small as a flea’s intestines or as large as the Amazon basin. The entire Earth is also an ecosystem. Ecosystems, therefore, can be nested inside each other. Biomes encompass all of the ecosystems that have similar climate and organisms. Tropical rain forests have the most biodiversity of any terrestrial biome, and coral reefs are the most diverse of any ocean ecosystem. Ecosystems provide services to the planet and all of its inhabitants. fOOd chainS and fOOd WebS Ecology is the study of the distribution and abundance of species and their relationship to their environments.

Tiny floating zooplankton, for example, con-­ sume phytoplankton and are an extremely important food source for higher marine ­animals. Worms obtain food by stripping mud of its organic matter or as parasites. Mollusks, which include snails, clams, squid, and octopuses, have an external or internal shell for protection from the elements and predators. Most of the 44,000 species of crustaceans, including crabs, lobsters, and shrimp, live in the oceans. ­Echinoderms—­sea stars, brittle stars, sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea ­cucumbers—­cling to the seafloor at all ocean depths and in nearly all water ­temperatures.

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