Download Basics of the Solar Wind by Nicole Meyer-Vernet PDF

By Nicole Meyer-Vernet

Creation to sun wind for researchers and graduate scholars in atmospheric physics and astrophysics.

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An important observational clue is that the small field concentrations generally evolve at the same timescale as convective flows, tending to accumulate at the edge of the convective cells. What causes the solar magnetic field and its cycle? What determines the scale of its structures and their relation to one another? A hint may be obtained by comparing the energies of the magnetic field and of the particle thermal motions. The thermal energy per particle at temperature T is 3kB T /2; with 5000 K a particle number density of about n 1023 particles/m3 at T in the photosphere, the density of thermal energy is 3nkB T /2 ∼ 104 J m−3 .

3) that the plasma and the magnetic field lines are strongly tied together, so that the plasma can move along the field lines but not across them, just as beads on a necklace. Near the poles, where the magnetic lines extend nearly radially, the outgoing wind can flow unimpeded along them. In the equatorial regions, however, the situation is different because an outgoing wind would have to flow perpendicularly to the dipolar field lines (Fig. 23). What happens in that case? Since the wind energy density exceeds that of the magnetic field, the wind pushes out the field, drawing the field lines outwards to the extent that they become nearly parallel to the equator and no longer return to the surface.

In this geometry, all field lines are closed; each one leaves the surface, extends outwards to a maximum distance L in the magnetic equatorial plane and then returns towards the surface on the other side (Fig. 23). 24 Simple model of how a dipolar magnetic field imposed at the solar surface is modified by a wind flowing along the field lines. 2. 14). Furthermore this plasma manages to flow outwards, with an energy density greater than that of the magnetic field, as we will see in Chapters 5 and 6. How does this modify the picture?

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