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By David Reed Greenwood; G L Kingsbury; J G Cleland; United States. Environmental Protection Agency. Office of Research and Development

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Ionization The first figure shows two graphs for two different intensities of radiation. 7 mCi) might produce 12 1x10 ion pairs per second, and another source of 200 MBq produce ion pairs at twice that rate. Incoming Radiation + ion / 'd Fixed Volts : Current vs. Voltage + C u r r e n t At a low applied voltage, the anode and cathode exert a weak force on the negative and positive ions, and they are only slowly separated and collected. This increases the probability that negative and positive ions will collide and recombine with each other, thus reducing the measured current.

It is also more likely at lower photon energies. Tightly bound electrons (inner shell, high-Z targets), are more likely to participate in the second process, the photoelectric effect. This is like a "head on" snooker shot, where the cue ball comes to rest, and the target ball shoots off at high speed. Since photons cannot come to rest (they always travel at the speed of light), the photon disappears, and the target electron shoots off with all the energy the photon had, minus the comparatively small amount used up in detaching the electron from its parent atom (the "ionization energy").

66 MeV) source, and a deviation curve showing the error at other energies supplied with the instrument. Some modern instruments are calibrated in units called "grays�, which are units of "absorbed dose�, or "kerma�, and not exposure. The reasons for this are explained in the next chapter. M. exposure meter are available for use as personnel monitors, replacing the previously described pocket ion chamber in some instances. While more expensive, these dosimeters have an easily read digital display, emit an audible "beep� as a constant indication of exposure rate, and some models can be programmed to sound a continuous warning at a A3-6 CHAPTER A3 preset accumulated exposure or exposure rate.

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