By Roger Thompson

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**Example text**

I diVIsor. a is the divident and b is the :I di VIsor. : • dodecagon. ~ a twelve-sided polygon I • dodecahedron ; a solid figure with 12 faces. A : regular dodecahedron is a ~ regular polyhedron with 12 I faces. Each face is a regular; pentagon. : I ; : ~ ; : ~ ; • domino two congruent squares joined along an edge. • dot a description of a point in which the point has a definite size • d ouble I"me graph s graphs in which two sets of data are graphed at the same time, connecting each set with line segments.

Euler line the line through a triangle'S circumcenter, orthocenter, and centroid. Named after Swiss mathematician and physicist Leonhard Euler. point circIc of ABC. I I _ even function ; a function f(x) is called an even : function if f(x) =f( -x) for all x. I : - even node ~ a node that has an even num; ber of arcs ; : I : ~ ; : ~ ; : ~ - even nwnber an integer that is divisible by 2. _ event an event is a subset of outcome space. An event determined by a random variable is an event of the form A=(X is in A).

Occurs, and we learn that the I event B occurred. How should I II =======MRthem4ries 31 *================= we update the probability of A to reflect this new knowledge? This is what the conditional probability does: it says how the additional knowledge that B occurred should affect the probability that A occurred quantitatively. For example, suppose that A and B are mutually exclusive. Then if B occurred, A did not, so the conditional probability that A occurred given that B occurred is zero. At the other extreme, suppose that B is a subset of A, so that A must occur whenever B does.